Part 4

Together we learn united we stand

Guimarães – PORTUGAL

 Guimarãesis a city and municipality located in northernPortugal, in the district ofBraga. It is also a part of theAve Subregion(one of the most industrialised subregions in the country), as well as the historicalMinho Province. The city has a population of 52,181 inhabitants.The population of the municipality in 2011 was 158,124,in an area of 240.95 square kilometres (93.03 sq mi).The current Mayor is Domingos Bragança, of theSocialist Party. The municipality is bordered to the north by the municipality ofPóvoa de Lanhoso, to the east byFafe, to the south byFelgueiras,VizelaandSanto Tirso, to the west byVila Nova de Famalicãoand the northwest byBraga.

The city was settled in the 9th century, at which time it was calledVimaranes. This denomination might have had its origin in the warriorVímara Peres, who chose this area as the main government seat for theCounty of Portugalwhich he conquered for theKingdom of Galicia.

Guimarães has a significant historical importance due to the role it played in the foundation of Portugal. The city is often referred to as the "birthplace of the Portuguese nationality" or "the cradle city" (Cidade Berçoin Portuguese) because it is widely believed that Portugal's first King,Afonso Henriques, was born there, and also due to the fact that theBattle of São Mamede- which is considered the seminal event for the foundation of theKingdom of Portugal- was fought in the vicinity of the city.

For some decades, Guimarães was the capital of the County of Portugal, however, shortly after the Battle of São Mamede (1128), and due to the needs of theReconquista,Coimbrabecame the kingdom's capital.

The inhabitants of Guimarães are often called "Vimaranenses" and "Conquistadores" (the Conquerors) in relation with the historical heritage of the conquest initiated in Guimarães.

Guimarães, along withMaribor, Slovenia, was theEuropean Capital of Culturein 2012.

The History of Guimarães is associated with the foundation and identity of the Portuguese nationality. Guimarães, as well as other settlements, precedes the foundation of Portugal and because of its role in the foundation of the country it is known as the "cradle of the Portuguese nationality". In 1128, major political and military events that would lead to the independence and the birth of a new nation took place in Guimarães. For this reason, in one of the old towers of the city's old wall it is written "Aqui nasceu Portugal" (Portugal was born here).

According to archeological findings in Citânia (Castro) of Briteiros and Sabroso and Penha's archeologic site, the area in which Guimarães is located has had permanent settlements since the lateChalcolithicperiod.

There is also evidence of Roman occupation and a stone dedicated to the Roman emperorTrajanfound inCaldas das Taipassuggests that this was already aspa towninRoman times .

Following theReconquistapolicy promoted by theKingdom of Galiciain the 9th century, themedievalfoundations of the actual city have roots in the 10th century. At this point, theCountessMumadona Dias, erected amonasteryin her property ofVimaranes, which originated the fixation of people in the area known as "vila baixa" (downtown). At the same time, she ordered the construction of a castle on the hill area which became known as "vila alta" (uptown), to defend the settlement. To connect these to other areas, theRua de Santa Mariawas built.

The monastery became the "Real Colegiada" (RoyalCollegiate church) and throughout time acquired importance due to the privileges and donations given to it by nobles and kings and it became a famous pilgrimage site.

Henry, Count of Portugalapproved the first nationalforalpossibly in 1096 (but not confirmed). The foral proves the growing importance of the village of Guimarães at that time, which was chosen as the capital of theCounty of Portugal.

On 24 June 1128, the "Batalha de São Mamede" (Battle of São Mamede) took place in Guimarães.

Until the 19th century the structure of the city did not suffer many transformations besides the construction of a few more churches,conventsand palaces. It was by the ending of the 19th century that new urbanistic ideas of hygiene and symmetry that the village, that was promoted to city by the QueenMaria IIon 23 June 1853 had its greatest changes.

The complete demolition of the city walls was authorized and the creation of many streets and avenues could start at that point. The controlled process of urbanization permitted the conservation of the city's magnificent historical center.

Guimarães is an average size city but with a booming cultural life. Besides its museums, monuments, cultural associations, art galeries and popular festivities, it has since September 2005, an important cultural space, the Vila Flor Cultural Center. This cultural center has two auditoria, exhibition center and a concert-cafe. Guimarães was theEuropean Capital of Culturein 2012, together withMaribor.

Guimarães was elected by theNew York Timesone of the 41 places to go in 2011 and NYT called it one of theIberian peninsula's emerging cultural spots

The city of Guimarães has several cultural spaces of reference at a regional and national level. Among the several museums of the city, the Alberto Sampaio museum is the one that stands out. Founded in 1928, it opened its doors to the public in 1931; it is located in the old site of the Canon the Collegiate of Our Lady of Oliveira (Cabido da Colegiada de Nossa Senhora da Oliveira in Portuguese). It contains a rich collection of pieces from the 14th, 15th and 16th century, including one rare vest that was used by the king John I.

The Martins Sarmento Society (Sociedade Martins Sarmento in Portuguese) is one of the country oldest institutions dedicated to the study and preservation of archaeological artifacts. The society owns two museums: the Archaeological Museum of the Martins Sarmento Society, which is known by its prehistory and protohistory collections and also its numismatics and epigraphy collections; and the Castro Culture Museum which is dedicated to the Castro culture.

There is also: the Primitive Modern Arts Museum, located in the Domus Municipalis (the old city hall), which contains a collection of naïve art; the Museum of the Village of São Torcato, which is dedicated to the region and its relationship with the monastery and Saint Torcato (São Torcato in Portuguese); the Agriculture Museum of Fermentões, which exhibits collections of the traditional agricultural practices of the region; and the Museum of São Sebastião, inaugurated on 24 March 1984, which contains mainly sacred art.

Other cultural venues include:

  • Vila Flor Cultural Center (Centro Cultural Vila Flor in Portuguese) is the main cultural venue in Guimarães. It was built in 2005, in a recovery of the old Vila Flor Palace and its surrounding area. It has two auditoriums, a concert-cafe and an exhibition gallery. The surrounding gardens of the old palace were also redone and in 2006, received an honorable mention in the Public Exterior Spaces category in the National Landscape Architecture Award.
  • São Mamede - Guimarães Arts and Shows Center.
  • Raul Brandão Municipal Library has its headquarters in the city and also has branches in Pevidém, Caldas das Taipas and Ronfe. It offers its mobile library services to 42 parishes and services the city schools and prison.
  • The Art Laboratory (Laboratorio das Artes in Portuguese) was founded in 2004 by ESAP students. It is a cultural space for exhibitions, performances, music and art workshops.
  • Alfredo Pimenta National Archive, founded in 1931, contains the archives for municipality of Guimarães and also the Braga district.

 ThePalaceof theDukes of Braganza

ThePalace of the Dukes of Braganza(Portuguese:Paço dos Duques de Bragança), is a medieval estate and former residence of the firstDukes of Braganza, located in the historical centre ofGuimarães(Oliveira do Castelo), in the north-western part ofPortugal.

It was initiated between 1420 and 1422 byAfonso, Count of Barcelos, theillegitimateson ofJohn I of Portugal(and futureDuke of Bragança), after his marriage to his second wife. His prodigeny would occupy the space until theDukes of Braganzamoved toVila Viçosa, abandoning the palace. The 16th Century marked the beginning of period of ruin, which was aggravated during the 19th century, when the local population used the palace as a personalquarry. During theEstado Novoregime, a controversial restoration restored the Palace, while implying a grandeur that may not have existed. ThePalace of the Dukeswas classified as a National Monument (Portuguese:Monumento Nacional) in 1910, and has been an official residence for the Presidency.

The residence was ordered to be built in the first quarter of the 15th century (likely 1420 to 1422) byAfonso, Count of Barcelos, the illegitimate son ofJohn, and futureDuke of Braganza, following his return to Portugal after a series of diplomatic missions to the Courts of France,Venice,AragonandCastile.[1]The construction of this building marked the concretization of his second marriage, when he took residence in the town.The project was given, as some authors have suggested, to French architect Antom. Yet, by 1442, it was still under construction when the RegentPetercame to Guimarães and stayed at the Palace, at the time conferring on his half-brother the title of 1stDuke of Braganza. The commission continued into 1461, when Afonso died: the property and titles passed on to his brother, Fernando, although the widow, Constança de Noronha, continued to live at the residence and received the land rents from the holdings in Guimarães.

In 1464, the title of Count of Guimarães is given to Fernando II, son of the Duke of Braganza, by KingAfonso V(which was later renovated in 1475). Three years later, on 1 April 1478, the 2nd Duke of Branganza, died, followed two years later by the death of the widow of the 1st Duke of Braganza: the titles and vast land holdings passed on to Fernando II. During the 16th century there was a move towards monumental construction, increasing at the time the main floor over the principal gate. This was a period when the second Duke of Braganza,Fernandowho pushed for a symmetrical design and layout.The functional organization of the spaces, dates from these renovations and included: the first floor, its servants' quarters and support rooms, and the second floor, that was devoted to the residence of the nobles, structured around the chapel and divided into individual spaces for the Duke and Duchess.But, Fernando's move to Vila Viçosa during the 16th century, meant that the residence was closed for long periods.Most records on the buildings construction include the fact that the Palace was incomplete at the time that it was abandoned: Father Torcato Peixoto de Azevedo indicated that the residence had never really been completed in hisMemórias(1692); which was also complemented by Father António de Carvalho da Costa (1706), who mentioned the same in his workCorografia Portuguesa; and Father Manuel da Mialhada also referred to the incompletePalace of the Dukes.Transcribed in 1900 by Albano Bellino, a 29 December 1761 document indicated the plan and elevation of the Palace, without referencing the central courtyard.

KingJohn IIat the time was very interested in curbing the seigneurial power of the nobility and concentrating his power. Fernando (supported by the King's cousin, theInfante Diogo, Duke of Viseu) protested and conspired withIsabella I of Castile, which resulted in his being accused of treason by KingJohn II, when the Duke's correspondence was intercepted by the King's spies. By order of the King, the Duke's properties and possessions were confiscated, and his residence in Guimarães continued to be looked after as Crown property, even as Duke Fernando was judged and executed on 20 June 1483 in Évora.The house was cared for by carpenters João Domingos, and later his son-in-law Afonso Anes, who were appointed to head the renovations of the property by John II.

In 1496, the properties of the House of Braganza were restored to Fernando II's oldest sonJaime, three years after returning from exile in Spain. Yet, Jaime chose to remain inVila Viçosaafter the family restoration, and as a result, the residence in Guimarães were closed.

The Dukedom of Guimarães was given as dowry toIsabel, sister of the 5th Duke Teodósio I, in her marriage to her cousin theInfante Edward(on 21 August 1536), thus-by passing the palace onto a peripheral branch of hereditary successors to theHouse of Aviz.

A century later, the space began a slow decline, which began innocently enough. On 20 October 1611, thePoor Claresnuns requested rock and stone from around the palace in order to repair their monastery. A similar request was made in 1666 by theOrder of Friars Minor Capuchinto KingAfonso VI(10th Duke of Braganza), to utilize rock from the interior walls of the palace to construct the Convent of Piedade.[1]In January 31, the municipal chamber intervened over the destruction occurring to the Palace, and on 4 February inspected and evaluated its condition in order to inform the King of the need to conserve its structure.The local government purposed funding the friars, and providing the stone from the barbican in theCastle of Guimarães, in exchange for stone in the Palace. As conditions continued to deteriorate the municipal chamber requested the roaming magistrate determine who stole stone from near the gate of Santa Cruz. On 26 November 1672, Pedro Vaz de Sampaio, master mason, was requested to replace the gate, since it was already ruined. There was a profound degradation in the following centuries, with more and more of its stone taken for construction in the city and its re-purposing as a barracks in 1807.At that time, the inhabitable part of the Palace was retiled by thealmoxarifeJerónimo de Matos Feijó and served as the barracks for the 20th Regimental Infantry.

Several public works were completed on 8 January 1819. By 30 December 1880, its importance as a historical building was made clear by the PortugueseRoyal Association of Civil Architects and Archeologists(Portuguese:Real Associação de Arquitectos Civis e Arqueólogos Portugueses), as a second-order historical monument.

Father António José Ferreira Caldas, writing in 1881, referred to the site as being in a state of ruins, serving as a barracks for various regiments and battalions.He made detailed description of what existed, including the grande courtyard, its main façade with one floor, lateral and posterior façades slightly taller, chapel door, the columns that supported the courtyard's gallery, its Flemish stained-glass windows in the chapel and diverse tiled chimneys. This was complimented in a similar report in 1886 by Vilhena Barbosa who also mentioned the columns in the northeastern lateral façade that supported the porch.

Structured around a central rectangular courtyard, the lateral buildings housing the official residences, while a chapel is located opposite the entrance. Its simple/basic form is one of the best examples of Portuguese late-medieval construction used by the nobility, comparable to the 14th century French palaces/buildings of the time. It was also used as an example for thePalace of the Kings of Majorca, inPerpignan, of which it is a faithful model.

The plan developed around a rectangular building with four rectangular towers, around an interiorcourtyarddominated by the chapel on the southeast wing. The spaces are articulated and staggered horizontal floors, covered with different roof tiles, in addition to with six tall chimneys.Each façades is made of granite, masonry block and interspersed by rectangular windows of varying styles:cruciform,stained-glass, standard and oblique. A few of the first floor windows are covered in metal grating. The northwest façade has an arch doorway surmounted bycorbelsand is recessed from the two towers. The superior floor is a balcony that runs the length of the interior courtyard, supported by corbels, which unite the guard towers. The lateral (northeast and southwest) façades are of a lower height and covered by trim and corbels, that supports the covered balcony, interspersed by openings at floor level. The southwest wing is broken by the body of the chapel, which extends away from the façade (identifiable by two largeFlemishstained-glass windows), and is highlighted by a cantilever roof within the courtyard.

The towers are all closed rectangular bodies, with watchtowers, interspersed by small windows.

The interior patio, accessible from the main doorway, is a balcony that overlooks the courtyard: supported byGothicarches on the main floor and columns on the second.At the roof-line, on all interior façades are balconies supported by granite corbels, while the chapel-side façade is highlighted by two isolated balconies (covered by tiled awnings) supported by similar corbels. The same façade is highlighted by a cantilever roof, supported by a rounded wooden arch and two supports decorated with columns. In the interior of this awning is a portal (consisting of four inset arches) preceded by a staircase, which gives access to the chapel. The gallery is covered by masonry stone on the main floor, and tiles on the second, with interior covering in wood

The austere interior spaces include simple granite walls with ceilings and floors in wood.

Spaces on the first floor are divided into several rooms, separated by narrow corridors that run perpendicular to the façades.In these spaces are the visitors reception area, storage, carpenters space, main hall and office of the director of the site. In the main wing is the unique staircase in the palace, consisting of four flights in granite.

The intermediary floor, corresponds to the museum space, consisting of the towers and halls with rock fireplaces, including theSalão de Banquetes(Banquet Hall) and theSalão dos Passos Perdidos("Hall of Lost Steps"), with roofs designed like the interior woodenkeelof a boat.

The last floor, was dedicated for the use of the President of the Republic, and is characterized by a succession of bedrooms with private bathrooms, between two suites located within the towers (for the President and Prime Minister.This floor is immediately accessible via the small elevator on the ground floor and staircase from the second floor cloister.

The last floor of the posterior wing is marked by a succession of rooms and the chapel. The chapel has a single nave, which is covered by a wooden ceiling presenting visible joists. A straight narrow wooden choir, allows access to balconies which extend to the front of the church and the exterior facade, as well as the corridors of the remaining wards. The richly carved wood benches in the nave precede the elevatedpresbytery, which is delimited by a wooden guardrail.


Castle of Guimarães

TheCastle of Guimarães(Portuguese:Castelo de Guimarães), is the principal medieval castle in themunicipalityGuimarães, in thenorthernregion ofPortugal. It was built under the orders ofMumadona Diasin the 10th century to defend the monastery from attacks byMoorsandNorsemen.

The castle is a military fortification grounded primarily in the late Romanesque period, and elaborated during the early Gothic epoch of Portuguese architecture. Its area is delineated by walls forming a pentagram, similar to a shield, that includes eight rectangular towers, military square and central keep. Originating in the foundations of a Roman structure, from the writings of Alfredo Guimarães, it was later elaborated on the French model, in its current the form of a shield, with reduced central yard and difficult accesses. It includes several Gothic characteristics, owing to its remodelling at the end of the 13th century, when the keep and residences were constructed (possibly over pre-existing structures).

Emblematic of the medieval Portuguese castle, Guimarães is associated with the origins of the Portuguese nation. Yet, the phases and organization involved in its construction, from the 10th century onwards is very deficient, with many of its present structure resulting from its reconstruction in the second half of the 13th century. The examination of its walls and remains led Carlos A.F. de Almeida to proclaim, for example, that the flanking towers were constructed during the late Romanesque, early Gothic period.

In the second half of the 10th century, owing to the death of Count Hermenegildo Gonçalves, the property of Vimaranes (today Guimarães) was inherited by his daughter Oneca. Countess Mumadona Dias, the count's widow, traded her property in Creiximir for the land in Vimaranes, and ordered the construction of a monastery situated on land today occupied by the Collegiate and Church of Nossa Senhora da Oliveira Later, in order to defend the curate at the monastery, the Countess ordered the construction of the castle. By 4 December 968, a codicilar document, the Countess referred to the castle (then designated as the Castle of São Mamede) as just having been constructed, in order to defend the friars and nuns in the monastery.

At the end of the 10th century, Dias's eldest son, Gonçalo Mendes, takes possession of the lands following her death and maintaining her wishes to support the monastery. But, Gonçalo Muniuz, son of Múnio (fourth son of Mumadona Dias) attempted to seize the town and castle, but he was impeded by his uncle Gonçalo, then family patriarch.[2]These family squabbles continued, when Ordonho, son of Ramiro (her third son), took the castle and town, later bequeathing them to his daughter Mumadona, on her marriage to Fernando Gondemariz. The town and castle were eventually sold to Mumadona's sister, Gontrode Ordonhes, who was married to Ermegildo Mendes, who eventually donated the monastery in 1045 to the curate.

At the end of the 11th century the castle was heavily expanded and remodeled, under the direction of Count D. Henrique, to act as his residence. The vestiges of the work are found near the entrance, and includes consisting of five rows of large ashlars, defining an arched wall, that were part of bastion between granite outcrops, within a castle with walled courtyard. The fortress, then over a century old, needed renovation. The nobleman chose to destroy what remained from Mumadona's construction, while extending the area of the castle and adding two entrances. The castle became the official royal residence from 1139, when Portugal became independent from the Kingdom of León, until circa 1200. It was at this residence that D. Afonso Henriques was born in 1111, living his life in the castle, which became the residence of the Counts of Portucale.

Following years of family rivalries, in 1128, the Battle of São Mamede (fought within the fields of the same name) gave origin to the independence of Portucale and the formation of the nucleus of what would become Portugal.

Between the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century, the castle was remodelled by King Denis, resulting in the form that stands to this day. The alcalde Mem Martins de Vasconcelos, siding with the king, resisted the siege by the Infante D. Afonso. In 1369, King Henry II of Castile invaded Portugal and encircled the castle of Guimarães, but was defeated by its population and forces loyal to then-alcaide Gonçalo Pais de Meira. Yet, several years (1385) King John I encircled the castle, and it was the alcaide Aires Gomes da Silva, supporter of D. Beatriz, who defended its walls.[2] Sometime between 1383 and 1433, the two towers that flank the main entrance were order built by King John I of Portugal.

In 1653, the town prosecutors of Guimarães within the Cortes petitioned "it was worth the village castle, the most sumptuous of the kingdom, which is becoming ruined, and if care is not taken, will become completely ruined, at the cost of the alcalde's rents. And the walls, also the best in the kingdom, if they are not repaired, will fall into ruin, equally the two towers without a little repair." Yet, by 1793, Alberto Vieira Braga referred to the "inutility" of the walls that circled the town, owing to their state of ruin. This changes marked the slow decline of the structure as a defense fortification.

By 1836, the councilmen of Guimarães were already looking to demolition the castle, and reuse the stone to repave the roadways. A member of the Sociedade Patriótica Vimaranense (Patriotic Society of Guimarães) defended the demolition of the castle, and suggested the use of its stones to pave the streets of Guimarães, as the fortress had been used as a political prison during the reign of King Miguel. However, this was never accepted. 45 years later, on 19 March 1881, the Diário do Governo (Official Journal) listed the Guimarães Castle as the most unusual historic monument of the whole region of Minho. After the castle's demolition was abandoned in the 19th century, many of the houses, estates and lodgings around the castle were expropriated.

The first attempts at restoration occurred during the mid-20th century, specifically in 1936.[2] In 1910, the castle was declared a national monument. In 1937, the General Service for National Buildings and Monuments started its restorations. The structure was re-inaugurated on 4 June 1940, on the occasion of the centenary of the castle.

On 20 April 1952, a special protection zone was established that included the castle, Church of São Miguel and the Palace of the Dukes of Braganza. Further elaboration of a plan for the area was completed within the 1957 landscaping of the area around the chapel by Viana Barreto.

In the course of installing new electrical systems at the castle, a medieval well was discovered.

On 1 June 1992, the building became the property of the Instituto Português do Património Arquitetónico (IPPA), under decree 106F/92 (Diário da República, Série 1A, 126). Further excavations in 2004, in the castle interior allowed the dating of structures to 10th century.

The castle is located within the northern limits of the urban area of Guimarães, isolated on a small hill formed from granite, and encircled by a small forest park, accessed by several pedestrian trails. Alongside the southern tower is a bronze medallion of D. Afonso Henriques, over a large rock.In the vicinity, on the hillside, is the Romanesquechurch of São Miguel do Casteloand thePalace of the Dukes of Braganza and some sections of wall that surrounded the city, and that were originally integrated into the castle.

Mountain and Sanctuary of Penha

Also known as Santa Catarina Moutain, this is the highest point of Guimarães, from where you have a wonderful panorama. Being one of the most important and famous of Guimarães, the Penha Moutain can also be accessed by cable car. One of the most attractive is the Senhora da Penha Sanctuary, an important pilgrimage site built in the 1930s.

Very close to the city, the Penha Mountain is a place of exceptional beauty and worth getting to know. The profound devotion to Sra. da Penha has, as its place of cult and faith, the sanctuary located here and which has spread this land’s name across the borders. For those who enjoy adventure, the mountain allows the discovery of numerous caves and lookouts from where magnificent panoramas can be seen. A large variety of services – restaurants, bars and cafeterias, as well as many substructures – mini-golf, equestrian centre, race track and camping park – make up what this place has to offer, permitting the practice of various outdoor activities or the simple enjoyment of nature’s company while having a picnic. The mountain may also be accessed by a cable car, whose terminal can be found in the urban zone. Its 1700 metre course has a duration of 10 minutes and will surely be an unforgettable ride.

Penha Mountain, is the only mountain in Guimarães, when you can have a wonderful view over the city. You can go there through an elevator, where you can taste a little more of the mountain spirit, and at the same time get different views of the city.


Agriculture Museum Fermentões

The city of Guimarães has several cultural spaces of reference at a regional and national level. Among the several museums of the city, the Alberto Sampaio museum is the one that stands out. Founded in 1928, it opened its doors to the public in 1931; it is located in the old site of the Canon the Collegiate of Our Lady of Oliveira (Cabido da Colegiada de Nossa Senhora da Oliveira in Portuguese). It contains a rich collection of pieces from the 14th, 15th and 16th century, including one rare vest that was used by the king John I.

The Martins Sarmento Society (Sociedade Martins Sarmento in Portuguese) is one of the country oldest institutions dedicated to the study and preservation of archaeological artifacts. The society owns two museums: the Archaeological Museum of the Martins Sarmento Society, which is known by its prehistory and protohistory collections and also its numismatics and epigraphy collections; and the Castro Culture Museum which is dedicated to the Castro culture.
There is also: the Primitive Modern Arts Museum, located in the Domus Municipalis (the old city hall), which contains a collection of naïve art; the Museum of the Village of São Torcato, which is dedicated to the region and its relationship with the monastery and Saint Torcato (São Torcato in Portuguese); the Agriculture Museum of Fermentões, which exhibits collections of the traditional agricultural practices of the region; and the Museum of São Sebastião, inaugurated on 24 March 1984, which contains mainly sacred art.
Other cultural venues include:

Vila Flor Cultural Center (Centro Cultural Vila Flor in Portuguese) is the main cultural venue in Guimarães. It was built in 2005, in a recovery of the old Vila Flor Palace and its surrounding area. It has two auditoriums, a concert-cafe and an exhibition gallery. The surrounding gardens of the old palace were also redone and in 2006, received an honorable mention in the Public Exterior Spaces category in the National Landscape Architecture Award.

São Mamede - Guimarães Arts and Shows Center.

Raul Brandão Municipal Library has its headquarters in the city and also has branches in Pevidém, Caldas das Taipas and Ronfe. It offers its mobile library services to 42 parishes and services the city schools and prison.

The Art Laboratory (Laboratorio das Artes in Portuguese) was founded in 2004 by ESAP students. It is a cultural space for exhibitions, performances, music and art workshops.

Alfredo Pimenta National Archive, founded in 1931, contains the archives for municipality of Guimarães and also the Braga district.

Citânia de Briteiros

TheCitânia de Briteirosis aCastro culturearchaeological site located in thecivil parishofBriteiros São Salvador e Briteiros Santa Leocádiain themunicipalityofGuimarães; important for its size, "urban" form and developed architecture, it is one of the more excavated sites in northwesternIberian Peninsula. Although primarily known as the remains of anIron Ageproto-urbanhill fort(oroppidum), the excavations at the site have revealed evidence of sequential settlement, extending from theBronzetoMiddle AgesThe site was probably constructed between the first and second century BCE.Notes by Martins Sarmento and from recent explorations show that the Monte de São Romão was a favoured location for rock art engravings of theAtlantic Bronze Age,in the beginning of the first millennium BCE;it is not known when or why this first group left. Numerous early engraved rock surfaces were destroyed when many boulders were cut to build the ramparts and family compounds as the Castro settlement grew. Little is known of the beginnings of the Castro occupation, as no structures from the late Bronze Age have been found. Pottery from the earlyIron Agehas been found, when the settlement would already have been fortified. The majority of the ruins visible today have been dated from the second Iron Age, especially the last two centuries BCE. Sometime in the first century AD the settlement was occupied by Roman settlers. Expansion of theRoman Empireinto the region has left evidence in the oppidum at Briteiros, in the form of coins (those ofAugustusandTiberiusare the most numerous found, with smaller numbers of coins of theRepublic, and theFlaviansand theAntonines) ranging from the 1st century BCE to the 2nd century CE. A small number ofamphoraeand red pottery pieces have been found, and there is some evidence ofRomanizationin the architecture of the alleys and buildings of the eastern slope, but overall the visible impact of Roman occupiers is not strong.The reduced number of later coin and pottery finds suggests that occupation of the oppidum was declining from the 1st century CE, resulting in the 2nd century with very few people living within the ramparts. Evidence shows that there was a transitory reoccupation in theHigh Middle Ages, which included the building of a medieval chapel and graveyard on the acropolis. The site has been studied extensively since 1874, with the first excavations beginning in 1875, when the Portuguese archaeologistFrancisco Martins Sarmentobegan annual excavation campaigns while helping to develop methods of archaeological research and preservation in Portugal.Sarmento's campaigns led to the discovery of much of the ruins of the acropolis (the highest portion of the settlement), and he reconstructed a pair of dwellings on the site from his research. Continuing discoveries during the first decades of work led Martins Sarmento to purchase the land on which the settlement lay, which was regularly continued by theSociedade Martins Sarmento.[2]The land and Martins Sarmento's research materials were bequeathed to the Society. From the 1930s through the 1960s, new excavations were carried out by the Society, supervised by Mário Cardozo, which led to the discovery of large parts of the settlement on the eastern slope and additional portions of the acropolis. Further surveys were made in the 1970s (in the north-eastern section), and in 2002, 2005 and 2006. The site was classified and protected byIPPARas a Portuguese National Monument in 1910. As research methods developed over the 19th and 20th centuries, the successive excavations at the Briteiros site adapted to evolving concepts, and gaps remain in the scientific knowledge of the site. In 2004 a project was initiated under the responsibility ofMinho Universitywith the collaboration of the Martins Sarmento Society to integrate the past studies and improve the conservation of the site. Beginning in 1956, the excavations took on a new character, as archaeological objects began being collected from the site, a process that continued in digs in 1958 to 1961, 1964 and 1968.In 1962, the archaeological work was carried out by theServiços de Conservação(Conservation Services). In 1974 and 1977, there were works to conserve and clean the area, including various larger projects.Between 1977 and 1978, archaeological interventions were handled by a team that included Armando Coelho Ferreira da Silva and Rui Centeno, from the Faculty of Letters of the University of Porto.[2]Following excavations and surveys by archaeologist Francisco Sande Lemos, theSociedade Martins Sarmento(UAM) proposed (in 2006) the creation of a proto-history biological estate, as a form of interpretative centre, alongside the site, to revitalize the location.Strata were discovered during this time that indicated a human occupation before the reorganization of the urban space. Between October and November, a secondary baths near the national E.N.306 roadway.

The site is situated on a small promontory called Monte de São Romão between the civil parishes of Salvador de Briteiros and Donim, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) northwest of Guimarães. Situated over the Ave River, the site offers an extensive view over the river and its valley, and over an early north-south trade and communication between the Douroand Minho river valleys. The moderate elevation of the site, the temperate and humid climate and the nearby river also provided rich natural resources for exploitation and settlement. The Briteiros site is called a citânia or cividade (from Latin civitas, for city), due to its large size and city-like structure; other examples from the region and period include the Citânia de Sanfins and Cividade de Terroso.

The visible ruins of the walled village or hill fort includes a plan of great dimensions with four lines of walls and approximately oval shape.[2] The main platform covers 250 by 150 metres (820 ft × 490 ft) area of 24 hectares, following along two principal axis. The defensive ramparts includes a partially maintained fourth line to the north and a pair of moats. The preserved walls measure 1–3 metres (3.3–9.8 ft) thick and less than 2 metres (6.6 ft) high; a portion of the wall was restored by Martins Sarmento that measures almost 4 metres (13 ft) high. The walls were built using irregular dry stone masonry methods, edged on both sides. The innermost rampart was partially absorbed into the urban development by being incorporated as a support wall for several family compounds. Gates were cut through each of the ramparts to provide passage; some of the gate openings still have hollows where palisades were placed. Ramps and stairs providing access to the top of the third rampart are evident.

Briteiros is an unusual castros, having its streets arranged into a roughly grid pattern. The "urbanized" area of the settlement includes an acropolis surrounded by the first rampart in an elevated area of about 7 hectares.

several streets. Each of the compounds, were delimited by masonry walls, and provided living and working space for a large family. These structures included one to three circular stone houses, some large with an atrium, where the nuclear family lived; other structures within the compound housed other family members, served as stables or stored agricultural tools, food, and rain or spring water. Daily tasks and crafts were performed in the stone-paved courtyard of the compound, which formed the center of family life in the citânia. Assuming around 6 people per family unit, a population of the acropolis of around 625 people has been estimated, but estimates may reach as many as 1500 for the entire settlement when excavations are made of the eastern and south-western extremities.

Bom Jesus do Monte

Bom Jesus do Monteis aPortuguesesanctuaryinTenões, outside the city ofBraga, in northern Portugal. Its name meansGoodJesusof the Mount.

The Sanctuary is a notable example ofpilgrimagesite with a monumental,Baroquestairwaythat climbs 116 meters (381 feet). It is an importanttouristattraction of Braga.

Many hilltops in Portugal and other parts of Europe have been sites of religious devotion since antiquity, and it is possible that the Bom Jesus hill was one of these. However, the first indication of a chapel over the hill dates from 1373. This chapel - dedicated to the Holy Cross - was rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries. In 1629 a pilgrimage church was built dedicated to the Bom Jesus (Good Jesus), with six chapels dedicated to the Passion of Christ.

The present Sanctuary started being built in 1722, under the patronage of the Archbishop of Braga, Rodrigo de Moura Telles. His coat of arms is seen over the gateway, in the beginning of the stairway. Under his direction the first stairway row, with chapels dedicated to the Via Crucis, were completed. Each chapel is decorated with terra cotta sculptures depicting the Passion of Christ. He also sponsored the next segment of stairways, which has a zigzag shape and is dedicated to the Five Senses. Each sense (Sight, Smell, Hearing, Touch, Taste) is represented by a different fountain. At the end of this stairway, a Baroque church was built around 1725 by architect Manuel Pinto Vilalobos.

The works on the first chapels, stairways and church proceeded through the 18th century. In an area behind the church (the Terreiro dos Evangelistas), three octagonal chapels were built in the 1760s with statues depicting episodes that occur after the Crucifixion, like the meeting of Jesus with Mary Magdalene. The exterior design of the beautiful chapels is attributed to renowned Braga architect André Soares. Around these chapels there are four Baroque fountains with statues of the Evangelists, also dating from the 1760s.

Around 1781, archbishop Gaspar de Bragança decided to complete the ensemble by adding a third segment of stairways and a new church. The third stairway also follows a zigzag pattern and is dedicated to the Three Theological Virtues: Faith, Hope and Charity, each with its fountain. The old church was demolished and a new one was built following a Neoclassic design by architect Carlos Amarante. This new church, began in 1784, had its interior decorated in the beginning of the 19th century and was consecrated in 1834. The main altarpiece is dedicated to the Crucifixion.

In the 19th century, the area around the church and stairway was expropriated and turned into a park. In 1882, to facilitate the access to the Sanctuary, the water balanceBom Jesus funicular was built linking the city of Braga to the hill. This was the first funicular to be built in the Iberian Peninsula and is still in use.

The design of the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus, with its Baroque nature emphasised by the zigzag form of its stairways, influenced many other sites in Portugal (likeLamego) andcolonial Brazil, like the Sanctuary ofCongonhas. As the pilgrims climbed the stairs, (by tradition encouraged to do so on their knees) they encountered a theological programme that contrasted the senses of the material world with the virtues of the spirit, at the same time as they experienced the scenes of thePassion of Christ. The culmination of the effort was the temple of God, the church on the top of the hill. The presence of severalfountainsalong the stairways give the idea of purification of thefaithful.

The new church (built 1784–1834) byCarlos Amarantewas one of the firstNeoclassicchurches of Portugal.

This church was elevated to a Basilica status on 5 July 2015 byPope Francis



Bragais acityand amunicipalityin the northwesternPortuguesedistrict ofBraga, in the historical and culturalMinho Province. The city has 137,000 inhabitants, and the municipality, which includes 37civil parisheshas a resident population of 181,494 inhabitants (in 2011), representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal (by population). Its area is 183.40 km².Its agglomerated urban area extends from theCávado Riverto the Este River. The city was theEuropean Youth Capitalin 2012.It is host to thearchdiocese, the oldest in Portugal. Under theRoman Empire, known asBracara Augusta, the settlement was centre of the province ofGallaecia. Braga is a major hub for inland Northern Portugal.

Human occupation of the region of Braga dates back thousands of years, documented by vestiges of monumental structures starting in theMegalithicera. During theIron Age, theCastro cultureextended into the northwest, characterized byBracaripeoples who occupied the high ground in strategically located fortified settlements (castrum). The region became the domain of theCallaici Bracarii, orBracarenses, a Celtic tribe who occupied what is now northern Portugal, Galicia and Asturias in the north west ofIberia.

TheRomansbegan their conquest of the region around 136 BC, and finished it during the reign ofEmperor Augustus. The civitas ofBracara Augustawas founded in 20 BC; in the context of the administrative reorganization of these Roman acquisitions, Bracara was re-dedicated to the Emperor taking on the nameBracara Augusta. The city of Bracara Augusta developed greatly during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension around the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century,Emperor Diocletianuspromoted the city to the status of capital of the administrative areaConventus bracarensis, the south western area of the newly founded Roman province ofGallaecia.

In the 16th century, due to its distance from the coast and provincial status, Braga did not profit from the adventures associated with theAge of Portuguese Discoveries(which favoured cities likeLisbon,ÉvoraandCoimbra, seats of the Portuguese court). Yet, Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals and new churches managed to modernize the community. He expanded and remodelled the cathedral by adding a new chapel in theManuelinestyle, and generally turning the mediaeval town into a Renaissance city.

A similar period of rejuvenation occurred during the 18th century, when the archbishops of theHouse of Braganzacontracted architects likeAndré Soaresand Carlos Amarante, to modernize and rejuvenate the city; they began a series of architectural transformations to churches and civic institutions in the Baroque style, including the municipal hall, public library, theSanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monteand many urban palaces.

With the invasion of French troops, during thePeninsular Warsthe city was relegated, once again, to a provincial status. But, by the second half of that century, with influence from Portuguese immigrants living in Brazil, new money and tastes resulted in improvements to architecture and infrastructures.



Portoalso known asOportoinEnglish is thesecond largest cityinPortugalafterLisbonand one of the major urban areas of theIberian Peninsula. The urban area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 1.4 million(2011)in an area of 389 km2(150 sq mi),making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal.Porto Metropolitan Area, on the other hand, includes an estimated 1.8 million people.It is recognized as agamma-level global cityby the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group,the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city.

Located along theDouro river estuaryin Northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldestEuropeancentres, and its historical core was proclaimed aWorld Heritage SitebyUNESCOin 1996. The western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of theAtlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, when it was an outpost of theRoman Empire. Its combinedCeltic-Latinname,Portus Cale,has been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city is spelled with adefinite article("o Porto"; English:the port). Consequently, its English name evolved from a misinterpretation of the oral pronunciation and referred to asOportoin modern literature and by many speakers.

One of Portugal's internationally famous exports,port wine, is named for Porto, since the metropolitan area, and in particular thecavesofVila Nova de Gaia, were responsible for the packaging, transport and export of the fortified wine.In 2014, Porto was electedThe Best European Destinationby the Best European Destinations Agency.

In 2001, Porto shared the designationEuropean Culture Capital.In the scope of these events, the construction of the major concert hall spaceCasa da Música, designed by theDutcharchitectRem Koolhaas, was initiated and finished in 2005.

The first Portuguese moving pictures were taken in Porto by Aurélio da Paz dos Reis and shown there on 12 November 1896 in Teatro do Príncipe Real do Porto, less than a year after the first public presentation byAuguste and Louis Lumière. The country's firstmovie studiosInvicta Filmes was also erected in Porto in 1917 and was open from 1918 to 1927 in the area of Carvalhido.Manoel de Oliveira, a Portuguesefilm directorand the oldest director in the world to be active until his death in 2015, is from Porto.Fantasportois an internationalfilm festivalorganized in Porto every year.

Many renownedPortuguese musicartists and cult bands such asGNR,Rui Veloso,Sérgio Godinho,Clã,Pluto,AzeitonasandOrnatos Violetaare from the city or its metropolitan area. Porto has several museums, concert halls, theaters, cinemas,art galleries, libraries and book shops. The best-known museums of Porto are theNational Museum Soares dos Reis(Museu Nacional de Soares dos Reis), which is dedicated especially to the Portugueseartistic movementsfrom the 16th to the 20th century, and the Museum of Contemporary Art of theSerralves Foundation(Museu de Arte Contemporânea).

The city has concert halls of a rare beauty and elegance such as theColiseu do Portoby the Portuguese architect Cassiano Branco; an exquisite example of the Portuguesedecorative arts. Other notable venues include the historicalSão João National Theatre, theRivolitheatre, theBatalha cinemaandCasa da Música, inaugurated in 2005.The city has theLello Bookshop, which is frequently rated among the top bookstores in the world.

Porto houses the largestsynagoguein the Iberian Peninsula and one of the largest inEuropeKadoorie Synagogue, inaugurated in 1938.

World of Discoveries Museum

The WORLD OF DISCOVERIES is an Interactive Museum and Theme Park that re-enacts the fantastic odyssey of the Portuguese navigators, crossing oceans to discover a previously unknown world.

The Discoveries propelled mankind into the era of globalisation and definitively changed our relationship with the planet.

Portugal played a leading role in this process for centuries, creating new maritime routes and circulating people, animals and plants all around the world.

Here you can learn about this incredible meeting of cultures and the ambition, ideas, endeavour and innovation that made it possible.

Take yourself on an adventure that changed the world, visiting our twenty permanent theme areas.

Top off your visit at the Mundo de Sabores restaurant: a culinary voyage where you can try out exotic delicacies and delicious food from Portugal, Africa, India, China, Japan and Brazil.

Finally, why not take a timeless souvenir with you that you can find at the ?Sphera Mundi? shop, which has a wide array of original articles alluding to the discoveries on offer.

Jump onboard in the city where Henry the Navigator was born, the man who gave new worlds to the world.

?How big the Empire is! So many seas crossed, so many dangers overcome, so many discoveries made!? in Caravelas, Sailing Ships, the Golden Century of the Portuguese Navigators, Olivier Ikor.


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                                                                              Ömer POYRAZ