Part 2

Together we learn united we stand

Vico del Gargano is a village and comune in the province of Foggia in the Apulia region of southeast Italy. Called the "Village of Love", is part of the Gargano National Park and the Mountain Community of Gargano.

The town is bordered by Carpino, Ischitella, Monte Sant'Angelo, Peschici, Rodi Garganico and Vieste.

Town to 782 m above sea level,Vico del Garganois among the most active Gargano centres despite the small number of inhabitants approximately 8000.

Is one of "the most beautiful villages in Italy" because of its beautiful historic centre and local live even in winter. Many of these sites in the old town, were rewarded by prestigious gastronomic guides for the welcome, the quality and the uniqueness of the structure.

Vico del Gargano is celebrating its Patron Saint on February 14 — as we all know,Valentine's Daythat's why Vico is considered thecountry of love.

The special feature of the geography of this country is its elevation hike, which leads her to 780 m above sea level to the city centre and at 0 m above sea level San Menaio Calenella and which can be considered the closest seaside town.

Vico del Gargano also belongsGargano National Park.

The town has long been home to many people who have alternated over time, thanks to its geographical position that ensured an absolute and budget control of the territory while the organoleptic characteristics of the soil, provided plenty of food all year round.

The current town dates to 970 and seems to be built near a cemetery located near this area created bySlavsthey come from the Adriatic Sea in search of food and wealth, settled in this new reality with the local population.

Other documents, however, attribute the authorship of this town atNormansthat during the conquest of Gargano Vico used as a fortress and built the castle here later modified and expanded byFrederick II of Swabia.

Relevant cultural influences came later during the period of the enlightenment that led to the construction of the first monumental cemetery in Europe,San Pietro Extra Moenia.

Even during the second world war, Vico served well, because of its location, many blind partisans.




Like many of the castles built or renovated byFrederick II of Swabiaincluded a defensive area and a recreational area for the people who lived in the Castle. The castle is situated in the historic centre of the village and stands on all-the tower that opens the gates of the old city centre. From the Castle you could see the whole coast south and South East and on the clearest days theTremiti Islands. Really a wonderful view. Unfortunately, it is not clear whether the castle is open internally or not.

Some 12 to 4 million years ago, during theLate MiocenetoEarly Pliocene, a highlyendemicvertebratefaunaevolvedon what was thenGargano Islanddue to highersea levelsthan today. Several of these animals were subject toisland gigantism.

hefossilsare found in partially infilledpaleokarstfissuresacross Monte Gargano. The Gargano Island fauna is known asMikrotiafauna after an endemicrodentgenusof the area. Initially namedMicrotia, this had to be corrected, because the genus nameMicrotiawas already used forbutterflies.

The surface features of the ancientkarstdeveloped inMesozoiclimestone. In these,sedimentaccumulated together with the remains of the local fauna, forming thick layers of reddish, massive or crudely stratifiedsilty-sandyclays, known asterrae rossae("redsoils"). Through the mid-Pliocene, some of these deposits were flooded, probably due totectonicmovement of theApulian Plate. Others were overlaid by other sediments ofterrestrialorfreshwaterorigin. In this way a buried, partially reworked paleokarst originated.

Later, as theice agescycle got underway, sea levels sank and the former island was continentalized. In the cool andsemiaridconditions of theEarly Pleistocene(some 1.8–0.8 mya) a second karstic cycle occurred, producing the neokarst which removed part of the paleokarst fill.

Monte Sant'Angelo

Monte Sant'Angelo as a town appeared only in the 11th century. Between 1081 and 1103, Monte Sant'Angelo was the capital of a largeNormandominion under the control ofCount Henry, who was a vassal of theByzantine Empire. The grotto which houses theSanctuary of Saint Michael the Archangelwhere according to legend,St. Michaelappeared in 490, 492 and 493, has been the site of many famous pilgrimages, which started fromMont Saint-Michel.Pope John Paul IIvisited the sanctuary in 1987.

In the 17th century the city became part of theKingdom of Naples, to which it belonged until theunification of Italyin the 19th century.

The most important attraction of Monte Sant'Angelo is theSanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo, built in the 13th century byCharles I of Anjou. On June 25, 2011 the The World Heritage Committee has inscribed the Sanctuary of San Michele Arcangelo in Monte Sant'Angelo on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Sanctuary is one of the seven groups of historic buildings included in the World Heritage Site "Longobards in Italy. Places of the power (568-774 A.D.)".

Other sights of Monte Sant'Angelo include:

  • The Castle, with bastions of different ages. The most ancient part, calledTorre dei Giganti("Giants' Tower") is a pentagonal tower 18 metres (59 ft) high, with walls 3.7 metres (12 ft) thick. The first news on its history dates back to 979; later, it was the residence ofRainulf I of Aversaand theRobert Guiscard, who built the Norman Tower and the Treasure Hall. EmperorFrederick IIrestored the construction to use it as residence for his mistressBianca Lancia, while under theAngevinsit was used mainly as prison. Later, from 1464 to 1485, the fortress was the residence of the exiled Albanian condottieroSkanderbeg. The castle was largely rebuilt in the late 15th century byFerdinand I. According to a legend, the castle is currently home to the ghost of Bianca Lancia (popularly known as "Biancalancia"), whose sighs can be heard especially in winter time.[2]
  • The Tomb ofRothari(Baptistry of San Giovanni in Tumba), a baptistery dating back from the 12th century accessible from the 18th century of St. Peter. The portal has notable reliefs with Biblical stories. The name of "Tomb" is a misspelling of the Latin termTumba, meaning "dome".
  • The church ofSanta Maria Maggiore(11th and 12th centuries). The façade has blind arcades and a baldachin portal with sculpted frames. The interior has a nave and two aisles, divided by columns with sculpted capitals. The walls have Byzantine-style frescoes.
  • Pulsano Abbey, at 8 kilometres (5 mi) from the city. It was built in 591 over a Pagan temple and was largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1646.'Angelo

Manfredonia and Siponto

Manfredonia  is a town andcomuneofApulia, Italy, in theprovince of Foggia, from which it is 35 kilometres (22 miles) northeast by rail. Manfredonia is situated on the coast, facing east, to the south ofMonte Gargano, and gives its name to the gulf to the east of it. As of 2011its population was 57,416.

The area of current Manfredonia was settled in ancient times by theGreeks, founded byDiomedes. The flourishing Greek colony, having fallen into the hands of the Samnites, was retaken about 335 BC by KingAlexander of Epirus, uncle ofAlexander the Great.

In 189 BC Sipontum was conquered by the Romans and became a colony of citizens. It was a port at the junction of the road which basically followed the Adriatic coast (but giving the Garganus mountain's peninsula just north a miss) and a road throughArpi,Luceria,AecaeandAequum Tuticumconnecting atBeneventumto theVia Appia.

In AD 663 it was taken and destroyed by the Slavs. In the 9th century, Sipontum was for a time in the power of the Saracens.

In 1042 theNormansmade it the seat of one of their twelve counties, while the Monte Gargano remained Byzantine. The Normans won a decisive victory there over the Byzantine generalArgyrusin 1052. Siponto was an archbishopric in the Normancountship of Apulia.

Having become unhealthy owing to thestagnationof the water in the lagoons after the 1223 earthquake, Siponto was abandoned. The modern city of Manfredonia was built byKing Manfredbetween 1256–1263, some kilometers north of the ruins of the ancient Sipontum. TheAngevins, who had defeated Manfred and stripped him of theKingdom of Sicily, christened itSypontum Novellum("New Sypontum"), but that name never imposed.

In 1528 Manfredonia resisted a French attack led by theViscount of Lautrec. In 1620 it was destroyed by theTurks, who left only the castle and part of the walls.

Sipontowas an ancient port town ofApuliain southern Italy. The town was abandoned after earthquakes in the 13th century; today the area is administered as afrazioneof thecomuneofManfredonia, in theprovince of Foggia. Siponto is located around 3 km south of Manfredonia.

According to legend, Sipontum was founded by Diomedes, product of the union of theHomerichero of the same name with the daughter of the king of theDaunians. Siponto was probably founded by the Daunians.

Sipontum was a flourishing Greek colony, its Greek name being Sipious having fallen into the hands of theSamnites, it was retaken about 335 BC by KingAlexander of Epirus, uncle ofAlexander the Great. In 189 BC it became aRomancolony with its original Sipious name still used in Byzantine times, and in 663 AD it was taken and destroyed by the Slavs.

In the ninth century, Sipontum was for a time in the power of the Saracens; in 1042 the Normans made it the seat of one of their twelve counties. The latter won a decisive victory there over the Byzantine generalArgyrusin 1052.

According to legend, the Gospel was preached at Sipontum bySaint Peterand bySaint Mark; more trust, however, may be placed in the tradition of the martyrdom of the priestSaint Justinand his companions underGallienusandMaximianabout 255. The first bishop whose date may be fixed, was Felix, who was atRomein 465. In the time of bishopLawrence, during the papacy ofGelasius I(492-496), took place onMonte Garganothe apparition ofSaint Michael, in memory of which the famousMonastery of the Archangelwas founded.

About 688Pope Vitalianwas obliged to entrust to thebishops of Beneventothe pastoral care of Sipontum, which was almost abandoned, but the see was re-established in 1034, and under bishop Saint Gerard (1066) it became an archdiocese.The ancient cathedral remained still at Sipontum, but, with the building ofManfredoniaby KingManfred of Sicily, who decided to rebuild Siponto in a new location, the archiepiscopal see was transferred to the new town.

Michael of Zahumljeon 10 July 926 sacked Siponto, which was aByzantinetown inApulia.It remains unknown did he done this byTomislav'ssupreme command as suggested by some historians. Apparently, Tomislav sent theCroatian navyunder the Michael's leadership to drive theSaracensfrom that part of southern Italy and free the city.

Castel del Monte, Apulia

Castel del Monte(Italianfor "Castle of the Mountain";BareseCastídde d'u Monte) is a 13th-centurycitadelandcastlesituated on a hill inAndriain theApuliaregion of southeastItaly. It was built during the 1240s by the EmperorFrederick II, who had inherited the lands from his motherConstance of Sicily. In the 18th century, the castle's interior marbles and remaining furnishings were removed. It has neither amoatnor adrawbridgeand some considered it never to have been intended as a defensive fortress;however, archaeological work has suggested that it originally had acurtain wall.Described by theEnciclopedia Italianaas "the most fascinating castle built by Frederick II",the site is protected as aWorld Heritage Site. It also appears on the Italian version of the one cent Euro coin.

Castel del Monte is situated on a small hill close to themonasteryof Santa Maria del Monte, at an altitude of 540 m.When the castle was built, the region was famously fertile with a plentiful supply of water and lush vegetation.It lies in thecomuneofAndria, occupying the site of an earlier fortress of which no structural remains exist.

The castle's construction is mentioned in only one contemporary source, a document dating to 1240, in which theHoly Roman Emperor Frederick IIordered the governor of Capitanata to finish some works in it.It was never finished and there is no proof that the emperor used it as a hunting lodge as commonly stated.It was later turned into a prison, used as a refuge during a plague, and finally fell into disrepair. It originally had marble walls and columns, but all were stripped by vandals or re-used in constructions nearby.

Because of its relatively small size, it was once considered to be no more than a "hunting lodge", but scholars now believe it originally had a curtain wall and did serve as a citadel.Frederick was responsible for the construction of many castles in Apulia, but Castel del Monte's geometric design was unique.The fortress is an octagonal prism with an octagonal tower at each corner. The towers were originally some 5 m higher than now, and they should perhaps include a third floor.Both floors have eight rooms and an eight-sided courtyard occupies the castle's centre.Each of the main rooms has vaulted ceilings. Three of the corner towers contain staircases. The castle has two entrances, an unobtrusive service entrance and an ornate main entrance. Frederick's main entrance featured elements from classical design, and may have been influenced by Frederick's interest in Greco-Roman architecture.

The octagonal plan is unusual in castle design. Historians have debated the purpose of the building and it has been suggested that it was intended as a hunting lodge.Another theory is that the octagon is an intermediate symbol between a square (representing the earth) and a circle (representing the sky). Frederick II may have been inspired to build to this shape by either theDome of the RockinJerusalem, which he had seen during theSixth Crusade, or by the Palace Chapel ofAachen Cathedral.

Occasionally used as a hunting lodge underManfred of Sicily, the castle become a state prison under the latter's victor,Charles I of Anjou: here Manfred's sons Henry, Azzo and Enzo were kept as prisoner after 1266, as well as other Hohenstaufen supporters.

The main wall is 25 m high and the eight bastions each 26 m. The sides of the main octagon are 16.5 m long and those of the octagonal towers each 3.1 m. The castle has a diameter of 56 m. Its main entrance faces east.

Around the castle,Andriais theItalian DOC wineregion of Castel del Monte that produces red, white androsewines. Most of the wines are blends butvarietalwines can be produced as long as at least 90% of the wine is composed of the same grape. The reds are usually a blend of 65-100%Uva di Troia, up to 35% ofSangiovese,Montepulciano,Pinot noirandAglianico. Therosesinclude 65-100% Uva di Troia and/orBombino nerowith the other redgrape varietiesfilling out the rest. The whites are composed mainly ofPampanuto(65-100%) with other local white grape varieties filling out the rest. Red androsegrapes are limited to aharvestyield of 14 tonnes/ha and must make a wine with a minimum of 12%alcohol level(11% in the case ofrose). White wine grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 15 tonnes/ha and must make a wine with a minimum alcohol of 11%. If the wine is to belabeledaRiserva, the wine must beagedat least 2 years with one of those years inoak/wood and must have a minimum alcohol level of 12.5%.

In the 18th century, the castle's marbles and other ornamentation were looted. Members of theHouse of Bourbontook the marble columns and window frames and reused them at theirpalace in Caserta.What remains now includes fragments of a knight and a re-used Roman relief, while in the Provincial Gallery of Bari there are a head fragment and a cloaked, headless bust, sometimes interpreted as Frederick II.After having been abandoned for a considerable length of time, the castle was purchased in 1876 for the sum of 25,000 lire by the Italian State, which began the process of restoration in 1928.

Central to the plot ofUmberto Eco's novelThe Name of the Roseis an old fortress known as the 'Aedificium'. This was almost certainly inspired by Castel del Monte.It was also the set for the filmTale of Tales.

In 1996 Castel del Monte was named aWorld Heritage SitebyUNESCO, which described it as "a unique masterpiece of medieval military architecture".

Castel del Monte is depicted on the reverse of theItalian-issue1 Euro cent coin.

In the 1950s, soil around the castle was discovered to contain a bright red compound produced by a strain of the bacteriumStreptomyces peucetius. Scientists named the drugdaunorubicinand further development identified a related compounddoxorubicinthat finds use as a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat cancer.,_Apulia


Alberobello(Italian: [ˌalberoˈbɛllo]; literally "beautiful tree") is a small town andcomuneof theMetropolitan City of Bari,Apulia, southernItaly. It has about 10,700 inhabitants and is famous for its uniquetrullibuildings. TheTrulliof Alberobello have been designated as aUNESCOWorld Heritagesite since 1996.

Alberobello was first mentioned in the early 16th century when the first 40 families were granted land to farm in the area. The abundance of calcareous sedimentary material in the area lead to the building of houses with dry stone without the use ofmortar. These houses were the firsttrulliwhich contributed to the expansion of the settlement. Building the houses of dry stone was a requirement of Count Giangirolamo II as in this way it was avoidable to pay taxes on them. The inhabitants of Alberobello were feudal vassals of theAcquaviva of Aragonuntil May 27, 1797, when KingFerdinand IV of Bourbonreceived Alberobello and issued a decree that elevated the small village to a royal city, freeing them from feudal serfdom.


Matera(Italian pronunciation: [maˈteːra]is a city and a province in the region ofBasilicata, inSouthern Italy. It is the capital of theprovince of Materaand the capital of Basilicata from 1663 to 1806. The town lies in a small canyon carved out by theGravina.

Known as "la Città Sotterranea" (the Subterranean City), Matera is well known for being one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. Its historical center called "Sassi", along with the Park of theRupestrianChurches, is considered aWorld Heritage SitebyUNESCOsince 1993.

On October 17, 2014, Matera was declared Italian host ofEuropean Capital of Culturefor 2019

The area of what is now Matera has been settled since thePalaeolithic. The city was allegedly founded by theRomansin the 3rd century BC, with the name ofMatheolaafter the consulLucius Caecilius Metellus. In AD 664 Matera was conquered by theLombardsand became part of theDuchy of Benevento. In the 7th and 8th centuries the nearby grottos were colonized by bothBenedictineandBasilianmonastic institutions. The 9th and 10th centuries were characterized by the struggle between theByzantinesand theGerman emperors, includingLouis II, who partially destroyed the city. After the settlement of theNormansin Apulia, Matera was ruled byWilliam Iron-Armfrom 1043.

After a short communal phase and a series of pestilences and earthquakes, the city in the 15th century became anAragonesepossession, and was given in fief to the barons of theTramontano family. In 1514, however, the population rebelled against the oppression and killedCount Giovanni Carlo Tramontano. In the 17th century Matera was handed over to theOrsiniand then became part of theTerre d'Otranto di Puglia. Later it was capital ofBasilicata, a position it retained until 1806, whenJoseph Bonapartereassigned it toPotenza.

In 1927 it became capital of the province of Matera. On September 21, 1943, the Materani rose against the German occupation, the first Italian city to fight against theWehrmacht.

Matera has gained international fame for its ancient town, the "Sassi di Matera" (meaning "stones of Matera"). The Sassi originated in a prehistorictroglodytesettlement, and these dwellings are thought to be among the first ever human settlements in what is now Italy. The Sassi are habitations dug into thecalcareousrock itself, which is characteristic ofBasilicataandApulia. Many of them are really little more than caverns, and in some parts of the Sassi a street lies on top of another group of dwellings. The ancient town grew up on one slope of the rocky ravine created by a river that is now a small stream, and this ravine is known locally as "la Gravina". In the 1950s, the government of Italy used force to relocate most of the population of the Sassi to areas of the developing modern city.

Until the late 1980s the Sassi was considered an area of poverty, since its dwellings were, and in most cases still are, uninhabitable. The present local administration, however, has become more tourism-oriented, and it has promoted the regeneration of the Sassi with the aid of the Italian government, UNESCO, and Hollywood. Today there are many thriving businesses, pubs, and hotels there.

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