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December 2015 - 1st MeetING
KAYAKÖY- The Ghost Town
Location: Kayaköy is a village a 8km south of Fethiye in southwestern Turkey.
History: Kayaköy village serves as a museum and is a historical monument. Around 500 houses remain as ruins and are under the protection of the Turkish government, including two Greek Orthodox Churches, which remain the most important sites of the ghost town. There is a private museum on the history of the town. In the middle of the village stands a fountain that dates from the seventeenth century. Kayaköy was adopted by the UNESCO as a World Friendship and Peace Village.
One of the world’s spookiest ‘ghost towns’ – abandoned nearly 100 years ago in the fallout of the First World War – could be reborn as a major tourist hub.
To capitalise on its growing popularity among intrepid holidaymakers, Turkey’s government is auctioning off a 49-year lease on the deserted village of Kayakoy in return for its partial restoration.
Set against the Taurus Mountains, the village has hundreds of crumbling stone houses and two churches that seem to be trapped in time.
Dating as far back as the 18th century, the weathered ruins are part of a protected archaeological site that has become a big draw for travellers.
Turkey has announced that it will partially open the archaeological site to investors and the restoration project will include a hotel and tourist facilities that will encompass one-third of the village, the Hurriyet Daily News reported.
That is, if someone submits a successful bid in the auction on 23 October. An auction held last year was unsuccessful.
The project is expected to cost £8million and two companies have already expressed interest in bidding, but critics fear the town could lose its authenticity or originality, according to the newspaper.
Kayakoy, a Unesco World Friendship and Peace Village, is located in the Fethiye Peninsula, not far from white sand beaches and pricey resorts on the Aegean coast.
The village was abandoned when its inhabitants returned to Greece in a population exchange between the two countries in 1923 following the Greco-Turkish War.
Lycian Fethiye Museum
The museum presents the lives of the Lysians who inhabited the area of Turkey between the bays of Anatalya and Fethiye, a mountainous territory. Exhibits include Lycian pieces from the Bronze, Archaic, Hellenistic and Roman ages and from Byzantine times. There are coins from various periods, pre-historical and historical ornaments, statues, busts etc. Also pieces of a tomb from Tlos, grave steles, offering altars, jewellery, bronze pieces, amphorae, column pedestals and capitals and earthenware vases can be seen there. One of the significant finding displayed here is Trilingual Stele from Letoon, bearing inscriptions in Greek, Lycian and Aramaic, which is crucial in the deciphering of the Lycian language. There is also a separate ethnographic section with pieces from the Menteşe and Ottoman times. Outside the museum there is an open-air gallery with many interesting historical pieces.
Exhibits include Lycian pieces from the Bronze, Archaic, Hellenistic and Roman ages and from Byzantine times. There arecoins from various periods, pre-historical and historical ornaments, statues, busts etc. Also pieces of a tomb from Tlos, grave steles, offering altars, jewelry, bronze pieces, amphorae, column pedestals and capitals and earthenware vases. One very significant find displayed here is the very important'Trilingual Stele' from Letoon,bearing inscriptions in Greek, Lycian and Aramaic, which is crucial in the deciphering of the Lycian language. There is also a separateethnographic section with pieces from the Menteşe and Ottoman times. Outside the museum is an open-air gallery with many interesting pieces.
Tlos is an ancient sight located in province Antalya in southern Turkey. First people lived in this important religion place 4,000 years ago.
It was one of the oldest and largest settlements of Lycia. (The Lycia was first culture which lived there.) There are numerous sarcophagi and many tombs cut into rock remembering this culture. One of the most interesting is the 'Tomb of Bellerophon' - a large temple-type tomb with an unfinished facade featuring a relief in its porch of the legendary hero Bellerophon riding Pegasus, the winged horse.
Local bath, stadium and stone theatre were building during the Roman era. There are remains of church and temple from later Byzantine culture. Ottomans were last culture, which lived there, and from their culture we could see remains of the castle.
This place was re-discovered by Charles Fellows in 1838. Today there are many fields and pomegranate trees around Tlos. It’s very nice and magic landscape. It’s my most favourite place from Turkey trip and I hope that I will return there sometime in the future.
As one of the six principal cities of Lycia (and one of the most powerful), Tlos once bore the title under the Roman empire of 'the very brilliant metropolis of the Lycian nation'. It is one of the oldest and largest settlements of Lycia (known as 'Tlawa' in Lycian inscriptions) and was eventually inhabited by Ottoman Turks, one of the few Lycian cities to continue it existance through the 19th century. There is evidence that Tlos was a member of the Lycian Federation from the 2nd century BC. Two wealthy philanthropists, one of which was Opramoas of Rhodiapolis, were responsible for much of the building in the 2nd century AD. Inscriptions tell us that the citizens were divided into demes, the names of three of them are known: Bellerophon, Iobates and Sarpedon,famous Lycian legendary heroes.A Jewish community is also known to have existed with its own magistrates.
PAMUKKALE – Hierapolis
Hierapolis is an exceptional example of a Greco-Roman thermal installation established on an extraordinary natural site. The therapeutic virtues of the waters were exploited at the various thermal installations, which included immense hot basins and pools for swimming. Hydrotherapy was accompanied by religious practices, which developed in relation to local cults. The Temple of Apollo, which includes several Chtonian divinities, was erected on a geological fault from which noxious vapours escaped. The theatre, which dates from the time of Severus, is decorated with an admirable frieze depicting a ritual procession and a sacrifice to the Ephesian Artemis. The necropolis, which extends over 2 kilometres, affords a vast panorama of the funerary practices of the Greco - Roman era.
One of the finest buildings in Hierapolis is a theater built in the third century AD, during the reign of the Roman emperor Septimius Severus. The building stands on the site pre-existing theater of the Emperor Hadrian (second century AD). Its construction also used the building blocks derived from destroyed by the earthquake one of the Hellenistic theater, located in the northern part of the city.
Foundation date: On the southwest corner, above the amphitheatre, probably constructed in the 4th century BC.
Location:Located on the northern outskirts of the modern city, on the left bank of the Xanthos, which flows beneath the hill. A single road, Xantos yolu, encircles the hill and runs through the ruins.
Features of Xanthos include: Xanthos ruins has got a Acropolis, Necropolis, Roman-Byzantine Street, Byzantine Basilica, Amphitheatre, Pillar Tomb, The 'Xanthian Obelisk' and The so-called 'Harpy Tomb'.
History: The history of Xanthos is quite a violent-the Xanthosians twice demonstrated the fierce independence of the Lycian people, when they chose to commit mass suicide, rather than submit to invading forces. The Xanthosian men set fire to their women, children, slaves and treasure upon the acropolis before making their final doomed attack upon the invading Persians. Xanthos was later repopulated but the same gruesome story repeated itself in 42 BC, when Brutus attacked the city during the Roman civil wars in order to recruit troops and raise money. Brutus was shocked by the Lycians' suicide and offered his soldiers a reward for each Xanthosian saved. Only 150 citizens were rescued.
Xanthos was the capital city of the Lycian Federation and its greatest city for most of Lycian history. It was made famous to the Western world in the 19th century by its British discoverer Charles Fellows. It is very old - finds date back to the 8th century BC, but it is possible that the site may have existed during the Bronze Age or during the first centuries of the Iron Age
Xanthos and Letoon are often seen as a "double-site", since the two were closely linked and Letoon was administered by Xanthos. Letoon was the sacred cult center of Lycia, located less than 10 km to the south of Xanthos. Xanthos-Letoon is one of the most remarkable archaeological sites in Turkey. For this reason, it has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list. Currently there is a French team excavating Xanthos and Letoon.
Archaeological finds at the site, which was never a fully occupied settlement, but remained essentially a religious centre, date back to the late sixth century BCE, before the Greekcultural hegemonyin Lycia, which began in the early fourth century. In earlier times, the site was probably already sacred to the cult of an earlier mother goddess— she isEni Mahanahiin Lycia— which was superseded by the worship of Leto, joined by her twin offspring.
InGreek mythology, a claim for an early cult of Apollo in the valley of the Xanthus, unsupported by history or archeology, was provided by two myths, each connected to an eponymous "Lycus". One sprang from the autochthonousTelchinesof Rhodes and would have colonized the region at the time of Deucalion's flood; the other Lycus was an Athenian brother ofAegeusdriven from Athens, a seer who introduced the cult of Lycaean Apollo, which a folk etymology connected with Lycia and therefore made him its Athenian colonizer:seeLycus (mythology).
The foundations of theHellenistictemple dedicated toLeto, and her children,ArtemisandApollo, have been excavated under the direction of H. Metzger from 1962.Archæologistshave excavated much of the ruins; discoveries include theLetoon trilingual, bearing inscriptions in Greek, Lycian andAramaic, which has provided crucial keys in the deciphering of the Lycian language; it is conserved in the Fethiye Museum.
The sacrosanctity of the site is the purport of an anecdote related byAppianconcerningMithridates, who was planning to cut down the trees in thesacred grovefor his own purposes in his siege of the Lycian coastal city ofPatara, but was warned against the sacrilegious action in a nightmare.The site remained active through the Roman period. Thesite was Christianisedby the construction of an early church, which reused cut stone from the sanctuary, but was abandoned from the seventh century CE.
Saklıkent National Park(Turkish:Saklıkent Milli Parkı)), established on Jıne 6, 1996, is anational parkin southwestern Turkey. The national park is acanyon, and is located inMuğla Province, 50 km (31 mi) far fromFethiye.
The canyon is 300 m (980 ft) deep and 18 km (11 mi) long, being one of the deepest in the world. It was formed through abrasion of the rocks by flowing waters over thousands of years. As the level of water rises during winter months, visitors can enter the canyon only in the summer. 4 km (2.5 mi) of the canyon are walkable after April, when most of the snow in theTaurus Mountainshas melted and passed through on its way to theMediterranean Sea. Saklıkent means "hidden city" inTurkish.
Saklikent Gorge is a Canon located 50 km from the city of Fethiye. The Canyon is 300 metres deep and 18 km long, one of the deepest in the world, resulting from the abrasion of the rocks by flowing waters over thousands of years. There are many camps around the canyon, because in the summer travellers can ride the river or just bath in the water.